Co-Editors-in-Chief: Juliana Starr (University of New Orleans, USA), Elisabeth-Christine Muelsch (Angelo State University, USA)

Associate Editors: Carmen Mayer (University of California, Davis, USA), Isabelle Schaffner (École Polytechnique, IP Paris), Carolyn Snipes-Hoyt (Burman University, Canada)

Editorial Assistant: Jean-Philippe Vauchel (University of New Orleans, USA)

Editorial Committee: Jean Anderson (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), Guri Ellen Barstad (University College of Østfold, Norway), Célia Vieira (University of Maia, Portugal), Janice Best (Acadia University, Canada), Shoshana-Rose Marzel (Zefat Academic College, Israel), Pedro Paulo Catharina (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Véronique Cnockaert (Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada), Russell Cousins (University of Birmingham, England), Elizabeth Emery (Montclair State University, USA), Monica Filimon (Kingsborough, CUNY, USA), Evlyn Gould (University of Oregon at Eugene, USA), Sándor Kálai (University of Debrecen, Hungary), Ellen Mayock (Washington and Lee University, USA), Encarnación Medina Arjona (University of Jaén, Spain), Elisabeth-Christine Muelsch (Angelo State University, USA), Julia Przybos (Hunter College, CUNY, USA), Juan Pablo Spicer-Escalante (Utah State University, USA), Marie-Christine Kok Escalle (Utrecht University), Anna Gural-Migdal (University of Alberta, Canada), Tony Williams (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, USA), Jeremy Worth (University of Windsor, Canada), Kim-Hwan Yu (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, South Korea)

Advisory Board: Colette Becker (Université de Paris X-Nanterre, France), Yves Chevrel (Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne, France), Alain Pagès (Université de Paris III-Sorbonne Nouvelle, France), Dr. Brigitte Émile-Zola (France)

Excavatio: International Review for Multidisciplinary Approaches and Comparative Studies Related to Emile Zola and Naturalism Around the World is the scholarly-refereed open access journal published once a year by the Association internationale Zola et Naturalisme (AIZEN).

Statements and opinions expressed in Excavatio do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors or AIZEN.

For documents accompanying an article, authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce any texts or images.

Excavatio − Copyright by AIZEN. All rights reserved. Consent from the President of the AIZEN must be obtained before any parts can be reproduced.

ISSN 2368-6138